Alzheimer's disease is the most common cause of dementia, affecting nearly 500,000 people in the UK. Dementia is the medical term used to describe a number of conditions that cause a change in the way your brain works. These changes can cause memory problems and can alter your behaviour and emotions. You may also have problems making decisions and solving problems, or be unable to carry out your usual daily activities, such as driving, getting dressed or eating. The effects of dementia are different for each individual.
Alzheimer's disease changes the structure of your brain and causes your brain cells to die. It also affects the chemicals that are responsible for transmitting signals between your brain cells, which means that nerve messages aren't passed on properly. Over time, as more and more areas of your brain become damaged, your symptoms will get progressively worse.
Most people who develop the condition are over 65, although it can also develop in younger people. If you have Alzheimer's disease, you will usually live with the illness for several years, but this depends on when you’re diagnosed.
Alzheimer's disease is a condition that develops over many years. The symptoms get progressively worse over time. If you develop Alzheimer's disease before you're 65 (early-onset), your symptoms may get worse more rapidly than in people who develop it later.
One of the first symptoms of Alzheimer's disease is forgetfulness – for example, forgetting the name of an acquaintance or forgetting where you have put something. However, this isn't always caused by dementia and may just be a sign of getting older or simply the stress of a busy life. You might also have trouble finding the right words when talking or writing.
As Alzheimer's disease develops, you, or your family or friends, may notice other symptoms. Alzheimer's disease affects everyone differently. You may have some but not all of the symptoms listed below.
If you start to notice these symptoms, see your GP.
During the later stages of the disease, you're likely to be frail and increasingly dependent on other people. In general, your memory loss will get worse, and you may not recognise your close family or your partner. Eventually, you will become dependent on others to care for you.
The symptoms of Alzheimer's disease can cause a great deal of distress and upset for you, and your carers and family, who may feel they have lost the person they once knew.
As Alzheimer's disease progresses, you will become less mobile and less able to carry out your usual activities. You may be more likely to develop infections, such as pneumonia and bladder infections. Having Alzheimer's disease means it can be difficult to deal with these kinds of infections and illnesses, which can make it harder to recover.
Many people who have Alzheimer's disease live for years with the condition. When people die from Alzheimer's disease, it's normally due to a related problem, such as an infection, rather than the disease itself. However, Alzheimer's disease can also be fatal itself if it progresses to the point where the areas of your brain that control essential functions, such as breathing, swallowing and balance, are affected.
Doctors don't know exactly why some people develop Alzheimer's disease, but it's associated with a number of risk factors. These may include:
If you have Down's syndrome, you are also at greater risk of developing Alzheimer's disease as you get older.
Alzheimer's disease can be difficult to diagnose, especially in the early stages.
Your GP may ask you a series of questions designed to test your memory and thinking, for example, using a test called the Mini-Mental State Examination. He or she may also ask you to have a urine test or blood tests to see whether any other condition may be causing your symptoms, which may be treatable.
If your GP thinks that you may have Alzheimer's disease, he or she is likely to refer you to a Memory Assessment Service to see specialist doctors and nurses for more tests. These may include further tests to check your memory and thinking, and observation of your behaviour. You may be asked to have a CT or MRI brain scan.
There are a number of treatment options for Alzheimer’s disease, as described below. Treatments for Alzheimer's disease can't cure the condition but, for some people, they may slow down the development of the disease for a period of time. Which treatments you are offered will depend on your personal circumstances. Your doctor will discuss these with you to help you make a decision that’s right for you. Your decision will be based on your doctor’s expert opinion and your own personal values and preferences.
People with Alzheimer's disease don’t have enough of a chemical called acetylcholine in their brain. Acetylcholine helps nerve signals to travel across the gaps (synapses) between nerve cells (neurones). Medicines called acetylcholinesterase inhibitors can help to stop the level of acetylcholine in your brain falling any further. There are three acetylcholinesterase inhibitors available: donepezil hydrochloride, rivastigmine and galantamine.
Your doctor may offer you these medicines if you have mild or moderately-severe Alzheimer's disease, because they can help slow down the development of symptoms for a while. However, they are unlikely to extend your lifespan.
If you have late-stage Alzheimer's disease, your doctor may give you the option of taking a medicine called memantine. This works in a different way to acetylcholinesterase inhibitors. It may help to improve your thinking and memory and allow you to do more basic everyday activities such as washing.
Your doctor may also offer you medicines to help treat some of the symptoms of Alzheimer's disease, such as anxiety, sleep disturbance or irritability. He or she will discuss the potential benefits and side-effects of these medicines with you. If you also have depression, your doctor may offer you antidepressants to treat it.
Your doctor may suggest other treatments that can help you to deal with memory loss, emotional symptoms and changes in your behaviour. Some of the main ones are listed below.
If you have Alzheimer's disease, you may be looked after at home, in a care home or sometimes in hospital. The people who care for you can help you to look after yourself and stay healthy and safe.
If you're looking after someone with Alzheimer's disease at home, you're likely to need extra help and support. Looking after someone with dementia can be stressful and sometimes carers can neglect their own health and wellbeing.
As a carer, it's important to take regular breaks so that you can look after yourself and take some time to relax. Respite care is when someone comes into your home to care for the person with dementia while you take a break, or when the person with dementia attends a day centre or goes into a care home or hospital for a period of time. Organisations such as the Alzheimer's Society and Carers UK can give you more information about respite care.
There are many risk factors for Alzheimer’s disease but as yet no definite ways to help prevent you developing it. There’s nothing you can do about your genes or your age, but aiming to live a healthy lifestyle may give you some protection. It has been found that the same risk factors for cardiovascular disease can increase your risk of Alzheimer’s disease. By making certain healthy lifestyle changes, you may be protecting yourself against both diseases. Try to do the following to stay healthy.
As well as making lifestyle changes, some studies suggest that trying to keep as active as possible, with lots of interests and hobbies might help prevent Alzheimer’s disease. Other researchers have found that spending more time in education may also help to lower your risk.
It’s not yet known whether eating oily fish or taking B vitamins can reduce the risk of Alzheimer’s disease because studies so far have had mixed results.