Compression stockings (also called graduated compression stockings) can be used to prevent as well as treat a number of conditions that affect the circulation of blood in your legs.
Compression stockings are available in several sizes, lengths and colours. They are also available with different strengths of compression from class I to III. Class I stockings apply the least amount of pressure and class III stockings apply a much higher pressure. Compression stockings may cover your whole foot or they may be open at the toes. Your GP will be able to advise you which type is appropriate for you.
Compression stockings work by putting pressure on the veins in your leg to increase the speed at which blood moves through them. They are called graduated compression stockings because the pressure is greatest at your ankle and reduces further up your leg. When you walk or exercise your legs, compression stockings help the natural pump mechanism of the muscles in your legs. This improves the flow of blood back towards your heart.
For compression stockings to be effective, you need to wear them constantly during the day. Usually, you will be advised to take them off before you go to bed. If you can, wash your legs every day and check the condition of your skin. It’s a good idea to use a gentle moisturiser on the skin of your legs when you’re not wearing your stockings as it may become dry. Your GP can recommend creams that are suitable.
When checking your legs you need to look out for:
If you spot any of these signs or if you're worried, don't put your stockings back on and talk to your GP as soon as possible.
Hospitals often do a preoperative risk assessment for DVT, which takes into account your health and the type of treatment or surgery you're having. Your surgeon will recommend appropriate preventative measures for you.
Your surgeon may ask you to wear low-pressure compression stockings (also called anti-embolism or thrombo-embolus deterrent – TED – stockings) before your surgery and to keep wearing them during your hospital stay. You may need to have an injection of an anticlotting medicine called heparin as well as, or instead of, wearing stockings.
Your nurse will measure your legs and recommend the correct compression stockings for you. He or she will record your stocking size and length but may need to measure your legs again after surgery if this has caused them to swell.
Your nurse will show you how to put the stockings on and may also give you advice about washing and taking care of your stockings once you're back at home. You may need to wear your stockings for several weeks or months afterwards depending on your health and the type of surgery you had.
If you need to make a long journey, you may be at a slightly increased risk of DVT, especially if you have other risk factors. It’s recommended that you wear knee-high compression stockings that have been properly fitted for you if you're travelling for more than three hours and you have:
Speak to your GP about whether or not you need to wear compression stockings if you’re going to be travelling for more than three hours and you:
There are various lengths of compression stockings that fit your leg differently.
The type of compression stockings that you’re advised to wear will depend on your condition, but most people have knee-length ones. You may need to wear thigh-length compression stockings if you have severe varicose veins or you have swelling that stretches above your knee. However, there is some evidence to suggest that these are no more effective than knee-length stockings in preventing DVT. They are also more uncomfortable and more difficult to put on.
Compression stockings are tighter at the foot than higher up the leg. They can be difficult to put on and take off so you may need someone to help you with this.
If you’re still having trouble putting on your compression stockings, ask your GP about application aids, which can make this easier.
To help improve blood flow in your legs, don't sit or stand still or lie in bed for long periods. Take regular walks around the house and do gentle foot and ankle exercises when sitting down.
You may need to wear your stockings for several weeks or months so it's important that you take care of them and wash them regularly. Make sure you have a spare set to wear while the others are being washed.
Always ask your GP or nurse for advice and follow the manufacturer's instructions that come with your compression stockings. Typical care instructions are described here.